The Royal Asiatic Society was presented with this painting by Major-General William Miles on 17th June 1837. It had been given to him ‘by a Jain Priest of the Province of Marwar’ (see Head 1991). Besides his official activities in the army, Major-General Miles showed interest in the Jains, demonstrated by his contribution entitled ‘On the Jains of Gujerat and Marwar’ (Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society III, 1835: 335–371). F. E. Pargiter published the first description of this Two and A Half Continents painting in 1916 (see Pargiter 1916) in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.
Aḍhāī-dvīpa is the Hindi phrase for 'Two and A Half Continents' and describes the only part of the universe where human beings live in the Middle World of Jain cosmology. Frequently depicted in maps or colourful diagrams, it is the only part of the universe where people can be born so it is also known as 'the World of Humans' – manuṣya-loka.
The Two and A Half Continents is formed of concentric rings of differing size. Every other ring is a continent, which is surrounded by a ring of ocean. Moving from the centre outwards, the order is as follows:
The Middle World is the smallest of the three worlds that make up world space – loka-ākāśa. In world space all the souls live in the different body-forms they take according to their rebirths, in the various worlds. Outside world space is the non world space – aloka-ākāśa – which is endless. However, the Middle World is the most important area from the spiritual point of view because it is the only part where human beings can live.
Pictures in cosmological works are not intended to be merely attractive. Spelling out in visual form the complex explanations found in the writings, cosmological paintings form a long-established tradition of artwork in Jain heritage.
Written by Pandit Tilokacanda Dayācanda, pupil of the group-leader, the teacher Rūpadhīra, himself pupil of the group-leader, the respected teacher Kuśalabhakta, pupil of Jinacandra-sūri of the monastic order the Large Kharatara. The third day of the bright half of the year 1873 in the Vikrama era, 1739 in the Śāka era.
This is the painted cloth of Pandit Pāsadatta. It was created for him to read. May there be auspiciousness!
The language is Sanskrit, mixed with Rajasthani. The words rā and ro mean ‘of’ in this language.
The numbers 105 and 104 accompanying the honorific title śrī, which is used with the proper name of a religious teacher, are auspicious. The number 108 may also be used in the same way.
The Br̥hat-Kharatara-gaccha is one of the main Śvetāmbara monastic orders. Arising in the 12th century, this sect is active today and is largely represented in Rajasthan or Gujarat.
In the long history of this monastic order there have been several heads with the name Jinacandra-sūri. This one is probably the Jinacandra-sūri who was born in 1752 and died in 1799 (1809–1856 of the Vikrama era). Thus he had died before this aḍhāī-dvīpa was made.
The date is expressed according to the traditional Indian calendar. Here the year is indicated in two different eras, namely the:
first one refers to 1873 in the Vikrama era
second one to 1739 in the Śāka era.
The complete date as given in the document corresponds to 19 May 1817 in the Common Era (Pargiter 1916: 539).
The word pāṭa is the technical name for paintings on cloth or paper that are meant to be rolled so they can be carried.
The final phrase is customary at the end of manuscripts.
In the bottom-left corner, the text on the right side of the temple with a Jina, provides information that is found in the colophons of manuscripts. The first few lines are additional detail about the Jain universe, provided on the description tab.
From line 4 onwards, it gives the date and the name of the person who wrote, and perhaps painted, the object and of the owner.
Catalogue of Paintings, Drawings, Engravings and Busts in the Collection of the Royal Asiatic Society Raymond Head
Routledge; London, UK; 1991
‘Map of the Earth’ F. E. Pargiter
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society July 1916
Steps to Liberation: 2500 Years of Jain Art and Religion Jan van Alphen
Etnografisch Museum Antwerpen; Antwerp, Belgium; 2000
‘Une peinture cosmologique jaina déposée au Musée Guimet: texte et traduction’ Nalini Balbir dt>
Bulletin d’Études Indiennes volume 24–25 Association Française pour les Études Indiennes; Paris, France; 2006 to 2007
‘Le monde médian: une peinture cosmologique jaina sur tissu déposée au Musée Guimet’ Nalini Balbir dt>
Arts Asiatiques volume 64 École Française d’Extrême-Orient; Paris, France; 2009
Elements of Jaina Geography: The Jambūdvīpasaṃgrahaṇī of Haribhadra Sūri Haribhadra
translated and edited by Frank van den Bossche Motilal Banarsidass; New Delhi, India; 2007
Jain Cosmology Colette Caillat and Ravi Kumar
translated by R. Norman Bookwise (India) Pct. Ltd; New Delhi, India; 2004
Essays on Jaina Art Anand K. Coomaraswamy
edited by Richard J. Cohen Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts and Manohar; New Delhi, India; 2003
‘Oceans, Islands and Sacred Mountains: Representations of Cosmic Geography in Jaina Art and Architecture’ Julia A. B. Hegewald
Cosmos: the Journal of the Traditional Cosmological Society volume 16 Traditional Cosmological Society; 2000
‘Meru, Samavasaraṇa and Siṃhāsana: The Recurrence of Three-Tiered Structures in Jaina Cosmology, Mythology and Ritual’ Julia A. B. Hegewald
Kalhar (White Water-Lily): Studies in Art, Iconography and Archaeology of India and Bangladesh – Professor Enamul Haque Felicitation Volume edited by Gerd R. Mevissen, Gourishwar Bhattacharya, Mallar Mitra and Sutapa Sinha Kaveri Books; New Delhi, India; 2007
Jaina Temple Architecture in India: The Development of a Distinct Language in Space and Ritual Julia A. B. Hegewald
Monographien zur Indischen Archäologie, Kunst und Philologie series; volume 19 Stiftung Ernst Waldschmidt, G+H Verlag; Berlin, Germany; 2009
Cosmology Old & New: Being a modern commentary on the fifth chapter of Tattvārthādhigama Sūtra G. R. Jain
Jñānapīṭha Mūrtidevī granthamālā: English series; volume 5 Bhāratīya Jñānapīṭh Publication; New Delhi, India; 1991
Die Kosmographie der Inder: nach den Quellen dargestellt Willibald Kirfel
Georg Olms; Hildesheim, Lower Saxony, Germany; 1967
The Peaceful Liberators Pratapaditya Pal
Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson; Los Angeles, California, New York USA and London, UK; 1994
Illustrated Jambudveep Prajnapti Sūtra edited by Pravarttak Shri Mamar Muniji Maharaj, Amar Muni and Srichand Surana 'Saras'
Illustrated Agam series; volume 20 Padma Prakashan and Shree Diwakar Prakashan; New Delhi, India; 2006
Treasures of Jaina Bhandāras Umakant Premanand Shah
L. D. series; volume 69 L. D. Institute of Indology; Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; 1978
Royal Asiatic Society
Based in London, the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland dates back to 1823, when it was founded to assist scholarly investigation into the history, cultures, religions and languages of Asia. The society has a large library, including an extensive manuscript collection, organises seminars and lectures, and publishes a journal three times a year.
The period of time starting with the year when Jesus Christ was traditionally believed to have been born. Using CE is a more secular way of dating events in a multinational, multi-religious world.
The second continent in the Middle World of Jain cosmology. Dhātakīkhaṇḍa forms part of the Two and A Half Continents where human beings live.
Sanskrit for 'meditation', one of the six internal austerities or tapas that help purify the soul of karma. Meditation is deep thought about religious doctrine or mental focus on spiritual matters over a period of time. An important part of many religions, meditation is especially important in Jain belief because it forms key elements of religious practice and spiritual development.
Follower of the 24 Jinas or an adjective describing Jain teachings or practices. The term 'Jaina' is also used although 'Jain' is more common.
The innermost island-continent in the Middle World, in Jain cosmology. It is divided into seven continents separated by six mountain ranges. It takes its name - 'Rose-Apple Continent' - from a rock formation that resembles a rose-apple tree, which is found on Mount Meru in the centre of the island.
Action or act, thought of as physical in Jainism. Created by mental or physical action, karma enters the soul, which then needs religious restraints and practices to make it flow out. Karma can be both:
negative – deriving from harmful acts
positive – arising from beneficial actions.
Both types of karma trap a soul in continual rebirth. A pan-Indian concept, karma has extremely complex, detailed and technical divisions and subdivisions in Jainism.
Omniscience, enlightenment or perfect knowledge – the highest of the five types of
, where one knows everything wherever and whenever it is. It is extremely difficult to attain, equivalent to the 13th stage of spiritual purity in the guṇa-sthāna.
believe only men can achieve it whereas
believe that both men and women can become enlightened.
The universe in Jain cosmology, composed of the upper, middle and lower worlds. Human beings can live only in part of the Middle World.
There are three worlds in traditional Jain cosmology. The middle world is where human beings and animals live, and sits between the upper and the lower worlds.
The third continent of the middle world of Jain cosmology. Human beings can live only in the first two circular continents and the inner half of the third. Puṣkara-dvīpa is enclosed by a circular mountain barrier known as Mānuṣottara-parvata or 'Mountain beyond Mankind'. Human beings cannot live on the outer side of these mountains.
Often abbreviated, Vikrama-saṃvat is the calendar associated with Emperor Vikramāditya. It begins in about 56 BCE so the equivalent date in the Common Era can be calculated by subtracting 57 or 56. Based on Hindu traditions, it is a lunar calendar often used in contemporary India.
Formally recognised leaders within a religion. The clergy often perform rituals, lead worship and instruct believers in religious principles. Lay men and women usually complete formal study before being initiated into the clergy. Clerics are active among lay believers, often living in society. They may have specific roles or ranks and may progress through a hierarchy to become top leaders of the religious organisation.
An organised group of believers in a religion, often distinguished from other groups within the same religious faith who have differences of doctrine or practice.
A building reserved for public worship or prayer, usually dedicated to one religion and run by members of that religion's clergy.
A classical language of India, originally used by priests and nobility. Sanskrit has a rich literary and religious tradition. With only a few thousand native speakers nowadays, it is predominantly used in Hindu religious ceremonies and by scholars.
'Learned one' in Sanskrit and used originally for a Hindu brahmin scholar and teacher. Nowadays a Jain pandit is a scholar who has been educated traditionally and is expert in the sacred texts of at least one of the Jain sects.
The Hindi phrase for 'Two and A Half Continents' describes the only part of the universe where human beings live in the Middle World of Jain cosmology. It is made up of the central continent, Jambū-dvīpa, the second continent, Dhātakīkhaṇḍa, and Lavaṇa-samudra, the circular ocean that separates them. Kālodadhi is the ring of ocean around Dhātakīkhaṇḍa, dividing it from the 'half' continent, which is the inner part of the Puṣkara continent.
The half of the lunar month in the traditional Indian calendar in which the moon is at its fullest.
A belief system about the universe that covers its origin, structure and parts, and natural laws and characteristics such as space, time, causality and freedom.
The westernmost state in India, which is a stronghold of Śvetāmbara Jainism.
The most widely spoken group of languages in India, originating in the northern part of the subcontinent. Local dialects and Hindi languages are spoken all over northern India and in surrounding countries. Standard Hindi is used in administration by the central government of India, along with English.
The Lavaṇa-samudra or 'Salt Ocean' in Sanskrit is the first ocean in the Two and A Half Continents of the Middle World in Jain cosmology. It encircles the central continent, Jambū-dvīpa.
The cosmic axis of the Jain universe. Located in the middle of Jambū-dvīpa, the innermost continent of Jain cosmology, Mount Meru consists of three forested terraces, each smaller than the one below. When a Jina is born, the gods visit the earth, take him away and wash him in the standard birth ritual on the mountain. Jain temples often have a tower symbolising Mount Meru. Mount Meru is also the centre of the universe in traditional Buddhist and Hindu belief.
The largest state in India, in the north-western part of the country.
The language spoken in Rajasthan, in north-western India, and surrounding states. It is also spoken in some parts of neighbouring Pakistan. Also the adjective describing people, things or places in or associated with the state of Rajasthan.
In Jain cosmology three worlds make up world space, where life exists:
ūrdhva-loka – upper world
madhya-loka– middle world
adho-loka – lower world.
These are frequently represented in art as the Cosmic Man, a human figure whose legs stand for the lower world, whose waist symbolises the middle world and whose torso represents the upper world.
Favourable or lucky. Auspicious objects bring good fortune and may predict good events or a bright future.
Found at the end of a Jain manuscript, a colophon is similar to the publication information at the beginning of modern books. It usually contains the title and sometimes details of the author, scribe and sponsor. The colophons of Jain manuscripts may also include the names of owners, readers and libraries where they have been stored. They frequently have decorative elements and very commonly contain a wish for good fortune for any readers. Written mainly by the scribes who copy texts, Jain colophons are often written in Sanskrit.
A title of respect often used to indicate holiness or divinity. It honours a person or place and is also added to the name of written or sung texts, such as scriptures. It is added before the name, for example Śrī Ṛṣabha.