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Browsing: Fragments of Jain manuscripts (Or. 13950)

Title: Stanzas 8 to 10

Source:
The British Library Board
Shelfmark:
Or. 13950
Author:
unknown
Date of creation:
unknown
Folio number:
187 recto
Total number of folios:
10
Place of creation:
western India
Language:
various in Devanāgarī script
Medium:
opaque watercolour on paper
Size:
25 x 10.5 cms
Copyright:
CC0 1.0 (Creative Commons Public Domain)
Image copyright: Creative Commons Public Domain

Description

This page consists of stanzas 8 to 10 of this Sanskrit version of the popular story of Kālaka. This is not the beginning of the text, but it is the first page of this manuscript that is available. Verses 1 to 7 are missing.

The text emphasises the virtue of the monk Kālaka and recounts how his sister Sarasvatī becomes a nun. Kālaka goes to the city of Avanti to preach and Sarasvatī and her fellow nuns follow him there.

Other visual elements

There are several notable things about this page, which is not in perfect condition as the edges are slightly torn.

The Kālaka story is often an appendix to Kalpa-sūtra manuscripts. In many Kalpa-sūtra manuscripts, there is a clear intention to make the manuscript a valuable and remarkable object in itself. This often holds true for the manuscripts of the Kālaka story as well. Here this aim is signalled by the:

  • shape and style of the script, which is close to calligraphy
  • use of gold ink for the red-edged border lines and ornamental diamond shape
  • division of the text into two equally-sized panels, separated by a 2-centimetre margin containing a golden diamond
  • blue ornamental motifs around the golden diamond in the centre.

There is a single ornamental diamond because this is the recto side of a folio.

This version of the Kālaka story is told in poetry. Verse numbers are at the end of each stanza. They are often in red, like here. On this page are the following numbers:

  • 8 on line 3
  • 9 on line 5.

This means that this page contains verses 8 and 9 and a large part of verse 10.

Script

The elaborate script used is the Jaina Devanāgarī script, which is here like calligraphy. There are a few notable features of this script.

Firstly, it is an old type in the way the sounds e and o are notated when used with a consonant, known as pṛṣṭhamātrā script.

There are red vertical lines within the text marking out verse divisions. Single red vertical lines indicate where a verse is divided in two, while double red vertical lines are found at the end of the verse.

Background

The Kālakācārya-kathāStory of the religious teacher Kālaka – emphasises the connection between religious practice and magical abilities. As an accomplished Jain teacher, Kālaka can master various magical sciences and transmute brick into gold. He uses his powers to help the Śakas, a foreign population. In exchange, the Śakas help him destroy the wicked King Gardabhilla.

This eventful tale belongs to the Śvetāmbara Jain tradition. It is known in several versions in various languages and is often illustrated.The one in this manuscript is an anonymous text in Sanskrit verse, but the first seven stanzas are missing. Also missing are folios 191 to 197, corresponding to stanzas 33 to 61.

This version is known as Śrīvīra-vākyānumatam from its starting words. It is a short recension, where the story is told in simple language without poetical embellishments. By an unknown author, it is one of the most popular versions of the Kālaka story.

Assorted folios

The pages or folios under this shelfmark belong to different manuscripts. The folios show a variety of handwriting, language and artistic style and are on noticeably different paper.

The folios are from four separate manuscripts, as follows:

  • several folios are from a single manuscript of the Kālakācārya-kathā – Story of the Ācārya Kālaka
  • three folios are from different manuscripts of the Kalpa-sūtra, an extremely popular text in the Śvetāmbara canon.

There is also a manuscript holder made for an unknown manuscript.

It is not known what has happened to the rest of each manuscript.

Copies of the Kalpa-sūtra and Kālakācārya-kathā are often made in a single manuscript, which may be why these folios were bundled together. At some point in the past these folios and the manuscript holder were put into a box at the British Library and labelled ‘Frags. of Jain Mss. Skt. / Pkt.’ meaning 'Fragments of Jain manuscripts in Sanskrit and Prakrit'. However, it is important to remember that they do not belong together.

Translation

Then, accompanied by 500 soldiers, [his teacher] gave him the vows, and he [= Kālaka] got the position of a sūri.

1. Later on, his sister Sarasvatī took initiation, at the instigation of her own brother //
2. //8// The excellent teacher Kālaka showers a rain of dharma on the earth [= preached] – the worthy people capable of improvement.
3. Then one day, he went to the city of Avanti, and Sarasvatī also
4. went there // Although she was accompanied by nuns, when she went to an outside place [to answer a call of nature] she was seen
5. by the king. That such a beautiful lady can be so virtuous, indeed…

Transcription

1. [a]dāt tadā paṃcaśatī-padāti-yukto vrataṃ sūri-padaṃ sa lebhe / Sara-
2. svatī tad-bhaginī ca paścāj jagrahe dīkṣāṃ nija-bandhu-bodhāt //
3. 8 // śrī-Kālikācārya-varā dharāyāṃ kurvvanti bhavyāvani-dha-
4. rmma-vṛṣṭiṃ / athānyadāvanti-purīm agus te Sarasvatī cāpi ja-
5. gāma tatra //9 sādhvī-sametāpi gatātha bāhya-bhūmau nareṃdre-
6. ṇa nirīkṣitā sā / īdṛk surūpā yad iyaṃ suśīlā /  nūnaṃ///

Glossary

Kalpa-sūtra
The Book of Ritual attributed to Bhadrabāhu. It has three sections:
  1. 'Jina-caritra' – 'Lives of the Jinas'
  2. 'Sthavirāvalī' – 'String of Elders'
  3. 'Sāmācārī' – 'Right Monastic Conduct'.
A significant sacred text for Śvetāmbara Jains, the Kalpa-sūtra has a central role in the annual Paryuṣaṇ festival.
Sūri
A title for the leader of a religious order among the Śvetāmbaras. It is a higher position than ācārya.
Dharma
Duty, religious codes or principles, the religious law. Jains think in terms of dharma or underlying order in the universe.Related to this, the term is also used for the true nature of an object or living entity. For example, the dharma of:
  • fire is to burn
  • water is to produce a cooling effect.
The 15th Jina of the present age is called Dharmanātha or Lord Dharma . His symbolic colour is gold and his emblem the vajra – diamond thunderbolt. There is no historical evidence of his existence.
Initiation
Formal or ceremonial admission into an organisation or group.
Monk
A man who has taken a public vow to withdraw from ordinary life to formally enter religious life and advance spiritually. Frequently, monks perform physical austerities or undergo physical hardships in order to progress spiritually.
Nun
A woman who has taken a public vow to withdraw from ordinary life to enter religious life and advance spiritually. Frequently, nuns perform physical austerities or undergo physical hardships in order to progress spiritually.
Preach
To deliver a speech on a religious topic, usually given by a prophet or member of the clergy. It may be a formal task of a religious office or open to all believers in a religious faith. Often covering social and moral subjects, preaching may be intended to:
  • remind hearers of religious principles and rules
  • encourage piety
  • persuade non-believers of the correctness of the preacher's religious beliefs.
Sanskrit
A classical language of India, originally used by priests and nobility. Sanskrit has a rich literary and religious tradition. With only a few thousand native speakers nowadays, it is predominantly used in Hindu religious ceremonies and by scholars.
Prākrit
A term for any of the dead vernacular languages of ancient and medieval India. It may be contrasted with classical Sanskrit, the language used by priests and the aristocracy. The Jains used a large variety of Prakrits, with the Jain canon written chiefly in Ardhamāgadhī Prākrit.
Jaina Devanāgarī
The distinctive version of the Devanāgarī script found in Jain manuscripts.
Folio
A single sheet of paper or parchment with a front and a back side. Manuscripts and books are written or printed on both sides of sheets of paper. A manuscript page is one side of a sheet of paper, parchment or other material. The recto page is the top side of a sheet of paper and the verso is the underside.
Recto
Known as a folio, a single sheet of paper or other material has a front and a back side. The recto page is the top side of a sheet of paper and the verso is the underside.

Related Manuscripts

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