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Browsing: Victory banner (IM 89-1936)

Image: Victory banner – top detail

Title: Victory banner – top detail

Victoria and Albert Museum
IM 89-1936
Date of creation:
Total number of folios:
not applicable
Place of creation:
western India
not applicable
watercolour on cloth
86 x 59.4 cms
V&A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum, London
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Jain yantras are used as meditation aids and are formed of complex diagrams that combine all or some of the following:

Yantras are either paintings on paper or cloth or metal objects. Very few of this type have survived. They are generally used by mendicants and are associated with rituals relating to their promotion in the religious hierarchy.


A sacred sound, syllable, word or phrase that is believed to produce spiritual change if recited correctly. A mantra can be recited aloud or silently, and is often repeated. Mantras are closely associated with religions that originated in India, such as Hinduism and Buddhism as well as Jainism. The chief Jain mantra is the Namaskāra-mantra, which is recited daily, while another mantra very popular in Indian culture generally is Auṃ.
A sequence of actions that must be followed to perform a religious ceremony. The set of actions is largely symbolic, for example offering food to statues symbolises sacrificing to a deity. The ritual actions are often accompanied by set phrases.
Sanskrit for 'instrument' or 'machine', a yantra is a mystical diagram used in religious rituals. Yantras are typically formed of symmetrical, concentric circles and may also have the diagram of a lotus in the middle of numerous squares. Containing the names of the Jinas and sacred mantras, such as oṃ, yantras are meditation aids.

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