Glossary

Parameṣṭhin
Type of termDefinition
TermParameṣṭhin
Alternative Termspañca-parameṣṭhin, Pañca-parameṣṭhin, Supreme Beings, Five Supreme Entities, Five Supreme Beings, Five Holy Beings, Five Holy Entities, Five Sacred Entities, Five Sacred Beings
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Short Description-
Long Description

The ‘supreme beings’ in Sanskrit, also known as the pañca-parameṣṭhin or 'Five Supreme Beings'. A term for the categories of teachers who are paid homage in the Namaskāra-mantra:

  • enlightened teachers – Arhats
  • liberated souls – siddhas
  • mendicant leaders – ācāryas
  • mendicant tutors – upādhyāyas
  • mendicants – sādhus.
Term Language-
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