East India Company

In 1600 Queen Elizabeth of England granted a royal charter for a company to carry out trade with the East Indies, a term Europeans used at that time for parts of Asia. Many European countries established similar companies in this period. Gradually, the British East India Company became the effective ruler of large parts of South Asia, with its own armies and administration.

Eightfold Path

The fourth 'Noble Truth' of Buddhism is a set of related principles to help reach enlightenment. All eight tenets should be followed at the same time, and comprise:

  1. right view
  2. right intention
  3. right speech
  4. right action
  5. right livelihood
  6. right effort
  7. right mindfulness
  8. right concentration.

Doctrine of One-Sidedness, absolutism. Jains use this to describe non-Jain philosophical systems, which may not admit the truth of other views. 


Having only one sense faculty, that is, the tactile or sense of touch. This means elementary living beings, which are described as:

  • earth-bodied
  • water-bodied
  • plant-bodied
  • fire-bodied
  • air-bodied.

A term used for a man who is one of those listed in early sources as the direct successors of Mahāvīra, the 24th Jina.


Theological belief about death, the end of the world or the eventual destiny of humanity. Some religions have prophecies about the end of the world and related concepts such as the messiah.

Etc up to

A translation of a phrase in the original texts that is a convention to save space. It invites the reader to supply mentally a formulaic list of words at this point. These formulas are given in earlier, similar passages. - All text is © JAINpedia / Institute of Jainology 2019 under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 licence The Jain universe online at

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