Persian term for an imperial order or decree.


Giving up or limiting food or specified foods for a period of time, usually as part of a religious practice. Fasting is a key part of Jainism, chiefly because it is believed to:

  • help destroy karmas that bind to the soul
  • gain merit – puṇya.
Fatehpur Sikri

The 'City of Victory' established by Emperor Akbar as the new Mughal capital in 1571. In 1585 the Mughals abandoned Fatehpur Sikri and moved the capital to Lahore. A UNESCO World Heritage site, this city near Agra in Uttar Pradesh also contains the tomb of Salim Chishti.


A public commemoration of a religious ritual. Often a celebration that involves holding a religious ceremony to mark an important event in a religion's history. 


A collection of writings by various colleagues and scholarly admirers that is presented to an academic as a tribute. Most festschrifts are published on the honoree's retirement or an important career anniversary or to mark a significant birthday, such as the 65th.

Firuz Shah

Third of the Tughlaq sultans, who ruled from 1351 to 1388. He focused on promoting infrastructure rather than military expansion.


A single sheet of paper or parchment with a front and a back side. Manuscripts and books are written or printed on both sides of sheets of paper. A manuscript page is one side of a sheet of paper, parchment or other material. The recto page is the top side of a sheet of paper and the verso is the underside.

Four Noble Truths

The core of Buddhist belief, which states that:

  1. suffering and dissatisfaction exists – dukkha
  2. suffering results from attachment to desires – samudāya
  3. suffering ends when attachment to desire ends – nirodha
  4. freedom from suffering can be gained from practising the Eightfold Path – magga. - All text is © JAINpedia / Institute of Jainology 2019 under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 licence The Jain universe online at

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