Listing Glossary Terms 1 to 20 (out of 31)


The world we can see and feel, which is real and cannot be destroyed even though it is always changing. This belief contrasts with Buddhism, which holds that the world we experience is an illusion.


Nur-ud-din Salim Jahangir, Mughal ruler of India from 1605 to 1627. A great patron of the arts, Emperor Jahangir was also tolerant of the many faiths of his subjects.


Prince Salim adopted the title of Jahangir – 'World Conqueror' – when he became the fourth Mughal emperor. His reign from 1605 to 1627 was characterised by political stability, artistic production and generous patronage.


Follower of the 24 Jinas or an adjective describing Jain teachings or practices. The term 'Jaina' is also used although 'Jain' is more common.

Jaina Devanāgarī

The distinctive version of the Devanāgarī script found in Jain manuscripts.

Jaina Śaurasenī

A variety of Prakrit. A spoken language, it became used primarily for drama in northern India during the medieval period and is the language used for the main Digambara scriptures.


Common word in modern Indo-Aryan languages used for the Jain religion or Jainism.


Jainism, the Jain teaching.


The quality of being Jain, coined by Kanti Mardia. 'Jainness' implies that Jain belief is not an 'ism' but a science of life, the spirit of being Jain.


A city in the northwestern state of Rajasthan in India.


Mahāvīra's son-in-law, according to Śvetāmbara belief. He was married to Anojjā and was the first of seven defectors from Mahāvīra's teachings, causing a schism in Mahāvīra's followers.


The innermost island-continent in the Middle World, in Jain cosmology. It is divided into seven continents separated by six mountain ranges. It takes its name - 'Rose-Apple Continent' - from a rock formation that resembles a rose-apple tree, which is found on Mount Meru in the centre of the island.

James Burgess

Born in Scotland, James Burgess (1832—1916) published many volumes on Indian architecture and became director-general of the Archaeological Survey of India from 1886 to 1889. He is best known for his work documenting significant architectural sites in western India between 1871 and 1885 and for establishing the journals Indian Antiquary in 1872 and Epigraphica Indica in 1888.


Sanskrit for 'birth' or 'rebirth'.


Technical term for the auspicious event represented by the birth of a Jina.


Old age.


'Caste’ or social group of people within a society, fixed by birth and partly characterised by marrying only within that group. There are castes in Jain society which go back to the medieval period.


A 'victor' in Sanskrit, a Jina is an enlightened human being who has triumphed over karma and teaches the way to achieve liberation. A synonym for Tīrthaṃkara, which means 'ford-maker' or one who has founded a community after reaching omniscience through asceticism. The most famous 24 – Ṛṣabha to Mahāvīra – were born in the Bharata-kṣetra of the middle world, but more are found in other continents. There have been Jinas in the past and there will be some in the future.


Jain scripture.


A word for a Jain temple used in Northern India.

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