Article: Padmaprabha

Contributed by Nalini Balbir

Dates and numbers

The five auspicious events that mark a Jina’s life – kalyāṇakas – are traditionally associated with a specific date. This is given according to the system of the Indian calendar:

  • month
  • fortnight
  • day in the fortnight.

Astrological considerations also play a role here and the texts normally mention the constellations when an auspicious event takes place.

Dates associated with Padmaprabha

Last incarnation





6th day of the dark half of Māgha

  • 12th day of the black half of Kārtika – Śvetāmbara
  • 13th day – Digambara

13th day of the dark half of Kārttika

full moon of Caitra

  • 11th day of the dark half of Mārgaśīrṣa – Śvetāmbara
  • 4th day of the dark half of Phālguna – Digambara

The dates associated with these events are potential or actual dates of commemoration. These may be marked in festivals, which determine the Jain religious calendar.

There may be variations in the dates in different sources, Śvetāmbara on one side, Digambara on the other. But there are also cases of differences within the same sectarian tradition.

There are also other numbers connected with the life of this Jina.

Other numbers associated with Padmaprabha


Total lifespan

250 bows

30,00,000 pūrvas

Monastic and lay communities

A manuscript painting of the universal gathering and fourfold community. The universal gathering is the place and event when a Jina preaches to sentient beings. The fourfold community – saṇgha – is made up of monks, nuns, lay men and lay women

Universal gathering and fourfold community
Image by British Library © CC0 1.0 (Creative Commons Public Domain)

A Jina is not an enlightened being who exists alone after reaching omniscience. After perfect knowledge comes general preaching – samavasaraṇa. This sermon, which is attended by all, is reported in the scriptures as resulting in large numbers of listeners being inspired. Many turn to religious life, becoming monks or nuns, while many others make the vows that lay peopleśrāvaka and śrāvikā – can follow in their everyday lives. Further, the Jina’s teachings are preserved and passed on by his chief disciples – the gaṇadharas. This is why a Jina is also called a Tīrthaṃkara, meaning ‘ford-maker’ or ‘founder of a community’.

Each Jina establishes a 'fourfold community', led by the chief disciples. Made up of monks, nuns, lay men and lay women, the fourfold community follows the principles the Jina has set out in his preaching. How members follow the religious teachings vary according to whether they remain householders or take initiation into mendicancy. Individual figures relating to each Jina are thus important.

Padmaprabha's fourfold community

Chief disciples



Lay men

Lay women

107 led by Suvrata – Śvetāmbara
110 led by Vajracāmara – Digambara

336,000 – Śvetāmbara
333,000 – Digambara

420,000 – Śvetāmbara
420,000, led by Rātriṣeṇā – Digambara

276,000 – Śvetāmbara
300,000 – Digambara

500,005 – Śvetāmbara
500,000 – Digambara


All Jinas have individual emblemslāñchanas – and colours that help to identify them in artwork. They also have attendant deities known as yakṣa and yakṣī, who often appear flanking them in art.

Colour, symbol, yakṣa and yakṣī of Padmaprabha






red lotus

Kusuma – Śvetāmbara and Digambara

Acyutā – Śvetāmbara
Manovegā – Digambara

EXT:contentbrowse Processing Watermark

Related Articles

Related Manuscripts

Related Manuscript Images

  • Ten Jinas

    Ten Jinas

    Victoria and Albert Museum. IS 46-1959. Unknown author. Late 15th to 16th centuries

  • A Jina in meditation

    A Jina in meditation

    Bodleian Library. MS. Ind. Inst. Sansk. 109. Unknown author. 1596 - All text is © JAINpedia / Institute of Jainology 2021 under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 licence The Jain universe online at

Unless images are explicitly stated as either public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons licence, all images are copyrighted. See individual images for details of copyright.