Article: Nākoḍā Bhairava

Contributed by Knut Aukland

Nākoḍā Bhairava is a protective male deity worshipped in Nākoḍā, a Śvetāmbara Jain pilgrimage sitetīrtha – in western Rajasthan. He is very popular in the Śvetāmbara community, but also well known among Jains in general. Nākoḍā Bhairava is famous for his miraculous powers, granting boons and possessing his devotees.

Many Jains do not condone Nākoḍā Bhairava's popularity and believe that he has nothing to do with Jainism at all. Even so, both lay and ascetic Jains take part in his cult.

The present statue – mūrti – of Nākoḍā Bhairava was created and ceremoniously installed in the temple dedicated to Pārśvanātha or Lord Pārśva in 1934. Nākoḍā Bhairava is situated next to the temple's main image, Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha. The statue of the 23rd Jina, Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha, is reported to have been discovered underground in 1455 with the help of Nākoḍā Bhairava.

Nākoḍā Bhairava is particularly popular among Jain shopkeepers, who often keep images of him in their shops. The bhairava appears in various stories connected to the site and is today known for his ability to help devotees achieve various worldly goals such as better health and material gain. The bhairava is also believed to enter the bodies of devotees, effectively possessing them, sometimes communicating auspicious messages through them.

History

The temple to Lord Pārśva in Nākoḍā, Rajasthan, is a well-known pilgrimage site for Śvetāmbara Jains. As well as the black statue of Pārśva that is the main temple idol, a big attraction is a small figure of Nākoḍā Bhairava, a protective deity.

Nākoḍā pilgrimage site
Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland

The story of Nākoḍā Bhairava is connected to the tale of the image of Pārśvanātha or Lord Pārśva in Nākoḍā – Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha. The Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha is the main idol in the temple dedicated to the 23rd Jina. Nākoḍā Bhairava became prominent in the 20th century and is now familiar to most Jains.

According to the site’s own history, Jains have resided in Nākoḍā since the second century following the nirvāṇa of the 24th Jina, Mahāvīra, which is 527 BCE in traditional Śvetāmbara dating. From this time onwards various Jain activities are reported, such as temple constructions and visits from famous monks, including the influential philosopher Haribhadra. There are stories of Jain statues that were hidden underground to protect them from attacks by intolerant rulers and chieftains during the first half of the second millennium. Many such statues were forgotten and some are still dug out today. The statue of Pārśvanātha or Lord Pārśva in Nākoḍā – Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha – was rediscovered in this way in 1455.

According to the story, a Jain lay man had a dream in which Nākoḍā Bhairava told him of the long-forgotten statue of Pārśvanātha or Lord Pārśva, the 23rd Jina, and where it was hidden. The statue was then discovered and installed in the Nākoḍā temple by the Kharatara-gaccha monk Kīrtiratna-sūri. As Kīrtiratna-sūri was carrying the rediscovered statue of Pārśva, people spontaneously formed a procession behind him. They saw Nākoḍā Bhairava in the form of a boy dancing and walking with them, eventually causing them to stop in Nākoḍā. Kīrtiratna-sūri decided to keep the Pārśvanātha statue there and installed the aniconic image – piṇḍākar – of Nākoḍā Bhairava by the temple entrance. Similar stories are found in other pilgrimage sites.

The site was later abandoned until the Tapā-gaccha nun Sundarśrī came to the Nākoḍā temple at the beginning of the 20th century and decided to spend the rest of her life working on its restoration. She raised funds and interest in the site, actively propagating the cult of Nākoḍā Bhairava, which gave rise to her nickname of the ‘Saviour of Nākoḍā Tīrtha’ – tīrthoddhārikā. The official trust overseeing the site was established in 1924.

Origins

Picture of Nākoḍā Bhairava on an invitation to a 2009 bhakti – devotion – celebration in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Nākoḍā Bhairava is a guardian god in the Śvetāmbara Pārśvanātha temple in Nākoḍā, Rajasthan. A picture of Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha is on his chest.

Picture of Nākoḍā Bhairava
Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland

The word bhairava is a generic term used all over South Asia to denote some form of deity. It is derived from the Sanskrit verb root bhī, meaning 'terrible', 'frightening'. The name 'Nākoḍā Bhairava' thus means the 'bhairava of Nākoḍā'. Although it is not clear what the nature of Nākoḍā Bhairava and his cult was before he was installed in the Jain temple, it seems reasonable to assume certain points.

Firstly, at some point Nākoḍā Bhairava was a local deity without strong links to Jainism, similar to the many other bhairavas found in Rajasthani villages.

Secondly, it can be assumed that he was incorporated into a more defined sphere of Jain religious activity and infrastructure, much like other protective deities such as the goddess Saciyā Mātā.

The many bhairavas found all over India tend to be associated with the Hindu god Śiva, whose favourite weapon, the trident, is found in one of Nākoḍā Bhairava's hands. Supporting this connection to Śiva are two things. The first is magic formulas – mantras – in some of the hymns to Nākoḍā Bhairava. Secondly, there are popular emblems with an image of Nākoḍā Bhairava next to a sacred diagram – yantra.

Lay status

While often referred to as a guardian deity – rakṣakdev or adhiṣṭāyak deva – Nākoḍā Bhairava is also understood to be a lay follower of Jainism. This greatly affects the financial standing of the Nākoḍā trust since money donated to Nākoḍā Bhairava is interpreted as being donated to a lay man and not a statue in the system of the seven fields of donation. This gives the trust freedom to direct investment to other things than the construction and refinement of statues and temples, such as the research institution Prakrit Bharati Academy in Jaipur.

Image of Nākoḍā Bhairava

Replica image of Nākoḍā Bhairava in Prakrit Bharati Academy in Jaipur, Rajasthan. This figure is decorated with flower offerings. Nākoḍā Bhairava is a very popular protective god in the Śvetāmbara Pārśvanātha temple in Nākoḍā, Rajasthan.

Nākoḍā Bhairava
Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland

In 1934 a new statue of Nākoḍā Bhairava was fashioned on the instruction of Jain mendicants after his true form – svarūp – had been revealed in the dreams and visions of various individuals. One of these was the Tapā-gaccha monk, Himācal-sūri. He installed the three-dimensional bust statue of Nākoḍā Bhairava inside the temple, next to Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha. It replaced the previous image, which did not depict Nākoḍā Bhairava as a human-like figure.

In his present anthropomorphic form, Nākoḍā Bhairava has a red, moustachioed face and four arms. Many gods have four arms in Jain art. In each hand he holds an item associated with bhairavas all over India, namely:

  • a bowl – kapāla – in his lower right hand
  • a drum – ḍamaru – in his lower left hand
  • a sword – khaḍga – in his upper right hand
  • a trident – triśūla – in his upper left hand.

Many replicas are found both inside and outside India, reflecting his popularity. These shrines are the scene of religious ceremonies similar to the worship rituals surrounding the original Nākoḍā Bhairava.

Worship

Pujārī in the Pārśvanātha temple at Nākoḍā, Rajasthan. A pujārī is a temple attendant who prepares items for rituals and looks after the temple and any images. Dressed in the sacred colour, a pujārī is often a brahmin or another high-caste Hindu.

Pujārī
Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland

Although Nākoḍā Bhairava is secondary in the Śvetāmbara temple of Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha, he is a popular figure of worship. Nākoḍā Bhairava is a deity subject to the cycle of rebirth and thus can intervene in the world of human affairs, unlike a Jina who is a liberated soul. Worshippers pray to Nākoḍā Bhairava for help in worldly concerns, particularly wealth. There are two unusual elements associated with the worship of Nākoḍā Bhairava, which are more common in Indian religions in general than among Jains. First, he is well known for possession of his devotees. Secondly, the auspicious offerings of sweets – prasāda – are considered unlucky if taken outside the temple premises.

Morning and evening pūjās and āratīs are held daily for Nākoḍā Bhairava, but always after the main image of Pārśvanātha or Lord Pārśva has been worshipped. The pujārī draws a curtain in front of the closest sitting Pārśva image during the worship of Nākoḍā Bhairava. A way of preventing Pārśva from being offended, the drawing of the curtain is rare in Jain religious practice, although it is familiar to Hindus. All rituals are led by the Hindu pujārīs and the winners of auctions – bolis – held for the various parts of the worship. For the Pārśva idol these offerings include:

  • bathing the image – prakāl pūjā
  • offering saffron – kesar pūjā
  • burning incense – dhūp pūjā
  • offering perfume – itr pūjā
  • offering flowers – puṣpa pūjā
  • the final offering of the lamp ceremony – āratī.

The worship of Nākoḍā Bhairava consists of only the last three ceremonies. The highest auction bids are put forward for the lamp ceremony honouring the bhairava. The ritual of the 'sacred gaze' – darśana – and donating to the bhairava are both thought to be particularly auspicious during the evening lamp ceremony.

Many worshippers consider Sundays a particularly auspicious day for worship of Nākoḍā Bhairava. Evening gatherings with hymn singingbhajan – often take place at the weekends or on special occasions.

Many people perform a 'sacred gaze' – darśana – of Nākoḍā Bhairava upon arrival. The temple is arranged so that visitors pay their respects to the main figure of Pārśva first. Prayers are often performed while gazing at Nākoḍā Bhairava.

Some devotees report that they donate sums of money they have promised if their wishes are fulfilled. Many Jain businessmen consider Nākoḍā Bhairava to be their business partner and donate percentages of their yearly income to him.

Possession

A possessed man lies outside the Pārśvanātha temple in Nakoda, Rajasthan. Some of the pilgrims to this popular Śvetāmbara site celebrate while others seem unsure.

Possessed man
Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland

It is especially during the singing of evening āratīs on Sundays that Nākoḍā Bhairava is known to possess devotees. Some of the possessed devotees will answer questions from the other worshippers on issues of health and future outcomes.

Nākoḍā Bhairava appears to be particularly prone to possess devotees during the yearly fair – melā – held around the birthday of Pārśvanātha or Lord Pārśva. Pārśva's birthday is celebrated in the festival of Poṣa-daśamī, which falls in late December or early January and is celebrated by all Jain sects.

This is also an occasion where non-Jains come to worship the bhairava. Jains allow non-Jains to take part in the regular worship of the bhairava and he also possesses them at times.

Sweet offerings

Devotees take sweet offerings – prasāda – in the Pārśvanātha temple in Nākoḍā, Rajasthan. Unusually, worshippers keep and later eat a portion of the offerings to Nākoḍā Bhairava, the temple's protective god, but taking it outside is very unlucky.

Taking the bhairava’s prasād
Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland

A second unusual tradition relates to sweet offerings given to Nākoḍā Bhairava. A portion of these offerings is kept and later consumed by devotees as auspicious offerings – prasāda. This prasāda is to be eaten within the temple complex. If prasād is taken outside, it is widely believed that some misfortune might happen.

Car accidents and sickness are reported as resulting from breaking this unwritten rule. The local bus driver is known to habitually demand that the passenger who has taken prasād from Nākoḍā should go back and ask for forgiveness whenever his vehicle breaks down.

Images

  • Nākoḍā pilgrimage site The temple dedicated to Pārśvanātha or Lord Pārśva in Nākoḍā, Rajasthan, is a well-known pilgrimage site for Śvetāmbara Jains. In addition to the black statue of Pārśva that is the main idol in the temple, a major attraction is a small figure of Nākoḍā Bhairava. A protective deity believed to bring wealth, Nākoḍā Bhairava is said to possess some of his worshippers.. Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland
  • Picture of Nākoḍā Bhairava A picture of Nākoḍā Bhairava taken from an invitation to a bhakti – devotion – celebration organised by a Mumbai congregation in 2009. Nākoḍā Bhairava is a guardian deity in the Śvetāmbara temple of Pārśvanātha in Nākoḍā, Rajasthan. A very well-known deity among contemporary Jains, he is associated with wealth. A small picture of Nākoḍā Pārśvanātha is on his chest. . Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland
  • Nākoḍā Bhairava An image of Nākoḍā Bhairava in Prakrit Bharati Academy in Jaipur, Rajasthan. This replica of the original figure is decorated with flower offerings. Nākoḍā Bhairava is a very popular protective god in the Śvetāmbara Pārśvanātha temple in Nākoḍā, Rajasthan. His popularity means that reproductions of the original statue are found throughout India and beyond.. Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland
  • Pujārī A pujārī in the Pārśvanātha temple at Nākoḍā, Rajasthan. A pujārī is a temple attendant who prepares worship ingredients and looks after the temple and any temple images. Dressed in the sacred colour orange, a pujārī is often a brahmin or another high-caste Hindu.. Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland
  • Possessed man A possessed man lies outside the Pārśvanātha temple in Nakoda, Rajasthan. Some of the pilgrims to this popular Śvetāmbara site celebrate while others seem unsure. It is quite common for some devotees of the temple's guardian deity, Nākoḍā Bhairava, to experience possession by the god, but it usually takes place inside the temple. . Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland
  • Taking the bhairava’s prasād Devotees take sweet offerings – prasāda – in the Pārśvanātha temple in Nākoḍā, Rajasthan. An unusual tradition in this temple relates to the sweet offerings given to Nākoḍā Bhairava, the temple's protective god. Worshippers keep and later eat a portion of these offerings within the temple complex. Taking the prasāda outside the temple premises is believed to be very unlucky.. Image by Knut Aukland © Knut Aukland

Further Reading

The Cult of Nākoḍā Bhairava: Deity Worship and Possession in Jainism
Knut Aukland
An unpublished dissertation completed as part of a master's degree at Universitetet i Oslo in 2010

Full details

‘The Cult of Nakoda Bhairava: Deity Worship and Possession in Jainism’
Knut Aukland
Jaina Studies: Newsletter of the Centre of Jaina Studies
edited by Peter Flügel
volume 6
Centre of Jaina Studies, SOAS; 2011

Full details

‘Understanding Possession in Jainism: A Study of Oracular Possession in Nakoda’
Knut Aukland
Modern Asian Studies
edited by Joya Chatterji
volume FirstView
Cambridge University Press; July 2012

Full details

‘Deity Worship in Nakoda: Religion and Economy in a Jaina Pilgrimage Site’
Knut Aukland
Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Jaina Law
edited by Peter Flügel
Routledge Advances in Jaina Studies series; series editor Peter Flügel; volume 4
Routledge Curzon Press; London, UK; 2013 – forthcoming

Full details

Absent Lord: Ascetics and Kings in a Jain Ritual Culture
Lawrence A. Babb
Comparative Studies in Religion & Society series; volume 8
University of California Press; Berkeley, California, USA; 1996

Full details

Śrī Jain Nākoḍā
edited by Prem Bhandarī
Jñān Prakāśan; Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Full details

‘Worship of Bell-Ears the Great Hero: A Jain Tantric Deity’
John E. Cort
Tantra in Practice
edited by David Gordon White
Princeton Readings in Religions series; series editor Donald S. Lopez Jr.; volume 8
Princeton University Press; Princeton, New Jersey, USA and Oxford, UK; 2000

Full details

Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India
John E. Cort
Oxford University Press USA; New York, USA; 2001

Full details

‘Fairs and Miracles’
Caroline Humphrey
The Assembly of Listeners: Jains in Society
edited by Michael Carrithers and Caroline Humphrey
Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK; 1991

Full details

Nākoḍā Tīrthaoddhārikā: Pravartinī Sādhvī Śrī Sundarśrījī
Bhurcand Jain
Arihant Prakāśān; Bāṛmer, Rajasthan, India; 2005

Full details

Jay Śrī Nakoḍā
Bhurcand Jain
Arihant Prakāśān; Bāṛmer, Rajasthan, India; 2006

Full details

Riches and Renunciation: Religion, Economy and Society among the Jains
James Laidlaw
Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology series
Oxford University Press; Oxford, UK; 1995

Full details

World Renowned Jain Pilgrimages: Reverence and Art
Mahopadhyaya L. Sagar
Prakrit Bharati Academy; Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2000

Full details

Śrī Nākoḍā Pārśvanāth Tīrtha Itīhās
Campālāl Sālecā
edited by Prem Bhandarī
Jñān Prakāśan; Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India; no date

Full details

Glossary

Aniconism

The belief and practice of avoiding the representation of divinities or other religious figures, which may also include human beings or living creatures. Aniconic followers may use images of abstract shapes or symbols, such as pillars, as the focus of religious worship. Aniconic Jains are opposed to the worship of figures of Jinas and deities.

Auspicious

Favourable or lucky. Auspicious objects bring good fortune and may predict good events or a bright future. 

Cult

Religious activity centred around a deity or saintly figure. Religious rituals are performed regularly to the god or goddess, who may be represented in images or relics or found in natural features such as springs and trees. Shrines and temples are frequently built at the site of a cult and pilgrims arrive to worship the deity.

Darśana

Vision, insight or perception. It works with the quality of jñāna – knowledge in the soul – to gain deep, true understanding and is ever-changing.

Also one of the 14 'gateways' or categories of investigation of mārgaṇā or 'soul-quest'.

Deity

A god or divine figure, often with physical powers beyond those of a human and with superhuman abilities.

Devotee

An enthusiastic follower of a religion. Can also describe a keen enthusiast of an individual, concept or activity.

Donor

A donor gives freely. He or she may give alms to a mendicant or money to an institution. This donation may be for specific items or purposes, such as the creation of art. A donor, sponsor or patron may be named or pictured in the artwork.

Festival

A public commemoration of a religious ritual. Often a celebration that involves holding a religious ceremony to mark an important event in a religion's history. 

Hindu

Follower of the majority faith in India and an adjective describing something belonging to Hinduism. Hindus have numerous gods and diverse beliefs and practices, though many believe in the soul, karma, the cycle of births and liberation. Roughly a billion Hindus comprise the third largest religion in the world.

Hymn

The terms stavan, stavana, stava, stotra and stuti are all used for a prayer, song, chant or hymn to a Jina, a god or any other holy figure. Religious songs are always hymns of praise in Jainism. These devotional songs may be performed during daily rites or on special occasions, such as completion of a fast or a wedding. The hymns may be performed:

  • solo or in groups
  • as a form of meditation
  • as a rite offered as part of worship.

Idol

An image of a deity or concept that is worshipped either as a god or as a representation of the deity.

Jain

Follower of the 24 Jinas or an adjective describing Jain teachings or practices. The term 'Jaina' is also used although 'Jain' is more common.

Jina

A 'victor' in Sanskrit, a Jina is an enlightened human being who has triumphed over karma and teaches the way to achieve liberation. A synonym for Tīrthaṃkara, which means 'ford-maker' or one who has founded a community after reaching omniscience through asceticism. The most famous 24 – Ṛṣabha to Mahāvīra – were born in the Bharata-kṣetra of the middle world, but more are found in other continents. There have been Jinas in the past and there will be some in the future.

Kharatara-gaccha

Subsect of the Śvetāmbaras, chiefly found in Rajasthan and Mumbai and established in the 11th century. 

Laity

Believers in a religion who are ordinary worshippers, not clergy or members of religious orders. In Jainism, lay people are often called 'householders', indicating that they live in houses and have domestic responsibilities, unlike ascetics.

Mantra

A sacred sound, syllable, word or phrase that is believed to produce spiritual change if recited correctly. A mantra can be recited aloud or silently, and is often repeated. Mantras are closely associated with religions that originated in India, such as Hinduism and Buddhism as well as Jainism. The chief Jain mantra is the Namaskāra-mantra, which is recited daily, while another mantra very popular in Indian culture generally is Auṃ.

Nirvāṇa

Release from the bondage of neverending rebirths, in which an enlightened human being undergoes his or her final death, followed immediately by salvation instead of rebirth. Note that this differs from the Buddhist concept of the same name.

Pārśva

The 23rd Jina of the present age. His symbolic colour is green and his emblem the snake. Historical evidence points to his living around 950 to 850 BC.

Possession

Supernatural event during which a human being, animal or object is controlled by a spirit or god, leading to noticeable changes in behaviour or health.

Prayer

A religious communication offered by a believer to a god or object of worship. It may:

  • be private or public
  • be silent or aloud
  • be undertaken alone or in a group
  • take prescribed ritual form or be improvised
  • need tools and accessories or not
  • be a wish to be granted
  • be a request for guidance
  • be a hymn of praise or thanks
  • be a confession
  • express an emotion or thought.

Pūjā

Sanskrit for 'worship' or 'homage'. All Jains perform rites of honour to the 24 Jinas. Rites of worship take place daily, with more elaborate ceremonies performed on holy days. Mendicant and lay Jains perform different rituals. Some sects worship images – mūrti-pūjaka – and others do not, and different sects have various practices. Focused on images or not, worship can be:

  • external or material – dravya-pūjā – involving offerings of food, drink and precious substances
  • internal or mental – bhava-pūjā – including singing hymns of praise, reciting mantras and meditating.

Pujārī

Word used in modern Indo-Aryan languages to refer to those who are employed in temples. Neither ascetics nor priests, the male pūjārīs prepare the worship ingredients, clean and decorate the images if there are any and clean the temple. They perform daily worship for Jains who cannot attend temple each day. They receive the food offered in worship as part of their job. Because Jains cannot eat this food, the pūjārīs are often brahmin or other high-caste Hindus.

Rajasthani

The language spoken in Rajasthan, in north-western India, and surrounding states. It is also spoken in some parts of neighbouring Pakistan. Also the adjective describing people, things or places in or associated with the state of Rajasthan.

Rite

A sequence of actions that must be followed to perform a religious ceremony. The set of actions is largely symbolic, for example offering food to statues symbolises sacrificing to a deity. The ritual actions are often accompanied by set phrases.

Saciyā Mātā

Also called Saciyā Devī or Sācikā-devī. The lineage goddess – kula-devī – of many Ośval Jains, she was originally a Rajput Hindu deity who was absorbed into Jain religious activity and belief.

Sanskrit

A classical language of India, originally used by priests and nobility. Sanskrit has a rich literary and religious tradition. With only a few thousand native speakers nowadays, it is predominantly used in Hindu religious ceremonies and by scholars.

Seven fields of donation

An ‘exceptional lay man’ – mahāśrāvaka – can make religious gifts in the seven 'fields' of:

  1. image
  2. temple
  3. scripture
  4. male mendicant
  5. female mendicant
  6. lay man
  7. lay woman.

Contemporary Śvetāmbara mūrti-pūjaka Jains classify donations in these ways but in a hierarchy that is not found in the original Yoga-śāstra of Hemacandra. This hierarchy means that donations in a lower field can be ‘invested’ in higher ones, but not the other way around.

Shrine

A small structure holding an image or relics, which may be within a temple or building designed for worship. A shrine may be a portable object. Worshippers pray and make offerings at a shrine, which is often considered sacred because of associations with a deity or event in the life of a holy person.

Siddha

An omniscient soul that has achieved mokṣa. All liberated souls live in the siddha-śilā, at the top of the universe, in perpetual bliss.

Śiva

The principal destroyer or transformer deity in the Hindu religion. One of the triad of major Hindu gods, along with Brahmā the creator and Viṣṇu the preserver or protector. Śiva is often depicted with a third eye, a crescent moon on his forehead, matted hair and smeared with cremation ashes.

Sundarśrī

(1859–1937) Born into a Jain family in Sevadi, Rajasthan, she was initiated as a Tapā-gaccha nun shortly after her husband died. Around 1904 Sundarśrī was reportedly visited in a dream by Nākoḍā Bhairava, inspiring her to come to Nākoḍā, where she was instrumental in raising funds and increasing the popularity of the shrine.

Śvetāmbara

'White-clad’ in Sanskrit, the title of one of the two main divisions of Jainism, in which both male and female mendicants wear white robes. There are some differences of doctrine or belief between these two sects and to some extent their followers consider themselves as belonging to distinct branches. Divisions can be fierce in practical matters, for example, over the ownership of pilgrimage places, but all sects see themselves as Jains.

Tapā-gaccha

A Śvetāmbara mūrti-pūjaka sect, first established in the 13th century and reformed from the 19th century. Today nearly all mūrti-pūjak mendicants belong to this sect.

Temple

A building reserved for public worship or prayer, usually dedicated to one religion and run by members of that religion's clergy.

Yantra

Sanskrit for 'instrument' or 'machine', a yantra is a mystical diagram used in religious rituals. Yantras are typically formed of symmetrical, concentric circles and may also have the diagram of a lotus in the middle of numerous squares. Containing the names of the Jinas and sacred mantras, such as oṃ, yantras are meditation aids.

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