Article: Akṣaya-tṛtīyā

Contributed by Nalini Balbir

Known as Akṣaya-tṛtīyā in Sanskrit or by its modern form Akhātrīj, the 'Immortal Third' is a date common to both Jains and Hindus. It falls on the third day of the bright half of Vaiśākha, equivalent to mid-April to mid-May in the Western calendar. For the Jains, it commemorates the first proper alms-giving to a Jain monk through the example of the first Jina, Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha, and is celebrated by both major sects of Śvetāmbaras and Digambaras.

The culmination of the year-long fast known as varṣītap, Akṣaya-tṛtīyā features a fast-breaking ceremony at a temple dedicated to Ṛṣabha. The fasters are ritually fed by relatives in a public ceremony and are generally feted for their religious devotion and the physical and mental feat of such a long fast.

As well as the standard festival activities of listening to sermons and attending temple, pilgrimages to sites associated with Ṛṣabha's fast-breaking, such as Hastinapur and Mount Shatrunjaya, have become increasingly popular in recent decades.

Concept of giving alms

White-clad nuns from the Aṅcala-gaccha sect receive alms from lay women. Śvetāmbara Mūrtipūjak monks and nuns beg alms twice a day. Finding suitable alms that are correctly offered may take hours.

Lay women give alms to nuns
Image by Khetshi N. Shah © Khetshi N. Shah

Among the 24 Jinas of the current descending cycle of time known as avasarpiṇī, the first Jina Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha has a special place. Before him it was a golden age where people got everything they needed from wishing-trees and did not need to work. There was thus no need for agriculture or skills such as weaving. There were also no social institutions, such as marriage, because people lived in couples of male and female twins. Ṛṣabha is credited with organising society and inventing elements necessary for human civilisation, such as reading, writing, mathematics and farming.

The key event behind the Akṣaya-tṛtīyā festival is told in accounts of the first Jina’s life. The correct offering of alms to Ṛṣabha ended his 13-month fast and thus the festival underlines the importance of offering and receiving alms in the proper way.

The first tales of Ṛṣabha's receiving alms date back to the first centuries of the Common Era. One of the earliest is the Āvaśyaka-niryukti, an encyclopaedic verse commentary. At the time of Ṛṣabha's 'excellent and dreadful resolution' to go from one village to another, inaugurating the vihāra tradition, and take a vow of silence, people did not know 'which type of alms is to be given, of what sort [of people] wandering mendicants are'. Nevertheless, perfectly peaceful in his mind, the Jina-to-be wandered for one year without food. It is not that he was never invited. On the contrary, as the text says: 'he is invited by young girls, with [offers of] clothes, ornaments and seats'.

The Vasudeva-hiṇḍī, a Prakrit narrative from the same period, broadly agrees that Ṛṣabha refused many offers of alms. The implication is that all these splendid proposals are useless because they are not suitable for the First Lord. Later accounts greatly amplify this part by describing the sadness and surprise of the donors whose gifts are refused.

Prince Śreyāṃsa and Ṛṣabha

The first Jina, Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha, receives sugar-cane juice from Prince Śreyāṃsa. When he accepts properly offered alms he can break his year-long fast. This temple panel stresses that lay people should offer alms correctly

Ṛṣabha receives alms
Image by Nalini Balbir © Nalini Balbir

The monk Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha had refused all alms for a year when his wanderings took him to the town of Hastināpura, called Hastinapur in common parlance, where Prince Śreyāṃsa lived. One night the prince dreamed of his previous births and thus recalled what to give as alms to a wandering ascetic. The next day Śreyāṃsa offered Ṛṣabha sugar-cane juice and the monk was finally able to break his fastpāraṇā. The prince was rewarded with the five marvellous gifts one normally gets on such an occasion.

This episode is part of the cosmogonical myth that forms a major element of Ṛṣabha's life story. Śreyāṃsa is considered the founder of alms-giving: 'He is the donor of alms to the first Jina in the avasarpiṇī', as the Vasudeva puts it. In the 12th century, Hemacandra, the author of the standard Śvetāmbara biographies of the Jinas, states this clearly:

Beginning with Śreyāṃsa[,] the duty of giving originated on earth, just as the course of all practices and laws [originated] with the Master [= Ṛṣabha].

Trīṣaṣṭiśalākapuruṣacaritra
translation by Johnson, volume I, page 181

Śreyāṃsa as the first alms donor and Ṛṣabha as the first monk and future Jina receiving them provide the pattern for giving and receiving alms. The ritual of alms-giving is a cornerstone of the relationships of the fourfold community and hence vital for the survival of the Jain faith.

Depictions of Śreyāṃsa and Ṛṣabha are occasionally found in paintings in manuscripts of the Kalpa-sūtra. The text itself does not mention the episode, but the commentaries narrate it at length and it has become part of the narrative and pictorial tradition (Norman Brown 1934: plate 37, figure 125; also in Jain-Fischer 1978: Part I, plate XLI). The illustrations show Ṛṣabha on the left, dressed as a Śvetāmbara monk with the monastic equipment of broom and staff, and on the right Prince Śreyāṃsa. In between are vessels piled up on the ground. Śreyāṃsa pours the juice from a pitcher into the palms of the monk's hands, which he holds tightly together, slightly hollowed. This echoes the precise descriptions given in the texts. In Hemacandra’s words:

The Lord put together his hands and held out a dish made from his hands; Śreyāṃsa[,] lifting up the pitchers of cane-juice in succession, emptied them. The juice, though much, was contained in the Blessed One’s hand-dish.

Trīṣaṣṭiśalākapuruṣacaritra
translation by Johnson, volume I, page 180

A story and a date

A religious festival is the occasion for a community of faith to come together. It needs two factors:

  • an event to commemorate
  • a regular date.

In the earliest accounts of the story of Śreyāṃsa and Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha, no date is mentioned. A date first appears in Svayambhū-deva's Pauma-cariu, a Digambara work of the ninth century written in Apabhraṃśa Prakrit. Its conclusion is:

Ṛṣabha-deva having told Śreyāṃsa that this was an undecaying gift (akkhaya-dāṇu), this day was known as the Undecaying Third (akkhaya-taiya).

translation by Nalini Balbir, volume II, 17.6–8

In the 12th century, Hemacandra concluded his account in a similar way, but is more precise regarding the date and the fact that it was a festival in his time:

This inexhaustible gift was made on the bright third of Rādha [= Vaiśākha] and that was the beginning of the present-day festival of Akṣayatṛtīyā.

Trīṣaṣṭiśalākapuruṣacaritra
translation by Johnson, volume I, page 181

Both authors connect the name of the day with the quality of the gift that was made, calling both 'undecaying'. This pun is still made today (Cort 2001: 182).

These statements suggest that the central event became linked with a precise date in the early medieval period. Hemacandra's remark indicates that special acts were performed on that day, although no detail is given as to their nature.

In short, in texts dating from the 14th century onwards there are increasing hints that this day had become special for Jains. For instance, in manuscript colophons and inscriptions, the basic dating formula 'Vaiśākha Bright Third' is more and more often followed by the specific date of 'Akṣaya-tṛtīyā Day'. Ratnaśekhara-sūri, the 14th-century Śvetāmbara author of a handbook of conduct for Jain laity, mentions this day in a list of holy days that are both Hindu and Jain.

Hindu tradition

Akṣaya-tṛtīyā is still a date in the Hindu religious calendar and is considered to be especially auspicious for making religious donations. Thus there is a common element in the understanding of both religious traditions.

On the other hand, the name Akṣaya-tṛtīyā is not found in early non-Jain inscriptions, except for one doubtful case, which could date back to the fourth century. In Hindu historical documents, the term Akṣaya-tṛtīyā is mentioned more regularly from the 12th century onwards.

Thus the celebration of this day in both faiths is probably the result of social interactions and mutual influence over the centuries.

Festival practices

Women chanting hymns in the temple. Singing hymns of praise to the Jinas is one of the main elements of worship and is a crucial part of most religious ceremonies.

Women singing hymns
Image by Dey – Dey Alexander © CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Celebrations of Akṣaya-tṛtīyā focus on replicating the key ritual of fast-breaking, which has two parts – the ending of the varṣītap fast with the faster's accepting alms. This rite is likely to have been central from the earliest times, since the strong elements of commemoration found in Jain festivals mean that today's practices are probably very similar to what happened in the past.

The course of events of Akṣaya-tṛtīyā broadly follows the normal routine of Jain festivals. For example, this rare report of the festival, referring to 12 May 1948, states in general terms:

Akṣaya-tṛtīyā is observed as a sacred day by all Jains. It is spent in worship, meditation, spiritual studies and religious discourses

The Jaina Gazette
volume 45, number 6, June 1948, page 55

Listening to the tale of the event that the festival marks is a key part of Jain holy days. Regularly accounting for religious practices and sharing tales of faith help bind together a community, refreshing religious devotion and cultural and social unity.

The other elements of the routine during Akṣaya-tṛtīyā are:

  • making donations and offering gifts to the tapasvīs – those who observe the varṣītap fast – while in turn they offer alms to monks
  • going to the temple to worship Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha's image and sing hymns of praise, often ones specially composed for the end of the varṣītap.

Making a pilgrimage is a growing aspect of this festival. Ending the fast on Akṣaya-tṛtīyā has traditionally been celebrated in a temple dedicated to Ṛṣabha, often a local temple. However, travelling to one of the major Ṛṣabha temples in Shatrunjaya and Hastinapur for Akṣaya-tṛtīyā has become increasingly popular over the last half-century.

Re-enacting the key event

Whether mendicants or lay people, Jain devotees reproduce the mythical event of alms-giving in two stages. By copying Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha's fast and also the breaking of it, they identify with the Jina himself.

The fast – varṣītap

This detail from a Śvetāmbara manuscript shows the first Jina Ṛṣabha plucking out his hair in the ritual of keśa-loca. Part of the renunciation ceremony, dīkṣā marks the start of mendicant life. Śakra, king of the gods, watches this auspicious event.

Ṛṣabha becomes a monk
Image by British Library © CC0 1.0 (Creative Commons Public Domain)

The first Jina Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha had to fast for one year so devotees undertake a 'year-long fast' – varṣītap. They are known as tapasvīs. In practice, it means that they fast every other day for six months or one year, since no human being can fast totally and live.

The procedure is long and difficult. It starts on the anniversary of Ṛṣabha's renunciation – Phālguna Dark 8 – and ends on the day of Akṣaya-tṛtīyā. Beginning with a two-day fast, varṣītap involves taking no food and living only on boiled water on alternate days. On non-fasting days the fasters take food twice, drink only boiled water and do not eat after sunset. In practice, the type of restrictions they follow varies. Some people eat only twice a day, others thrice a day. Some fasters may limit their food on the eighth and 14th day of each fortnight. They also recite the pratikramaṇa and other sacred formulas (Cort 2001: 137–138).

Varṣītap is a very demanding fast and it is hard to perform alongside a normal job. When someone engaged in ordinary life observes it, the whole family is very proud. In practice, varṣītap is usually observed by women, who far outnumber male fasters, or by elderly people who are free from professional obligations. There are even extreme cases, like that of a man who died after having observed varṣītap continuously for two years.

The fast-breaking ceremony – pāraṇā

There are several parts to the ritual of pāraṇā, in which the fasters complete their year-long fast.

On the day of Akṣaya-tṛtīyā the fasters are fed with sugar-cane juice by family members, who thus identify themselves with Prince Śreyāṃsa. If they cannot find sugar-cane juice, they use water sweetened with sugar.

Here is a report on how the fast-breaking ceremony may proceed:

The relatives of the participants go to a nearby shop of [a] sugar-cane crusher, wash the [sugar-cane] press with boiled water and collect the juice in earthen pots. They bring the juice to the temple and offer the participants 108 small cups full of juice.

Jain and Fischer, 1974

See also page 182 of Cort 2001.

Listening to the story

This painting from an Ādityavāra-kathā manuscript shows monks preaching to lay men. The monks are of the Digambara sect even though their white robes resemble those of Śvetāmbara monks. Each monk sits on a dais and holds a scripture in a scroll. The books

Preaching monks
Image by British Library © CC0 1.0 (Creative Commons Public Domain)

As in all Jain festivals, listening to the story of the commemorated event is part of what everyone is supposed to do. Mendicants read from manuscripts or books, or relate the story to the audience gathered in the temple or large hall adjoining it.

A vast body of specialised texts has evolved in the course of the Akṣaya-tṛtīyā tradition. Called Akṣaya-tṛtīyā-kathā or vyākhyāna, they have been written in simple Sanskrit or the modern languages Jains use, sometimes by prominent monks who seem to have specialised in this literary genre. Examples include the Śvetāmbara teachers Kanakakuśala in the 17th century and Vijayalakṣmī-sūri and Kṣamākalyāṇa in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Over the long period of time in which the story has been told, new motifs have developed in the Akṣaya-tṛtīyā-kathā. Two of them stand out, and relate firstly to the reasons for Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha's lengthy fast and, secondly, to his eventual acceptance of alms.

In several later versions, and in most popular retellings found in contemporary booklets, the traditional explanation that proper alms-giving was not yet known is not enough of a reason for Ṛṣabha’s long fast. An inserted episode tells why Ṛṣabha was unable to find proper alms for a year. This long fast was due to a specific type of karma the Jina-to-be had bound during one of his previous births and that was still in effect, since he had not yet reached omniscience. In his previous life he had seen some peasants hitting their bulls. Ṛṣabha advised the men to obstruct the mouths of the animals to make them obey, which then sighed 360 times. This act of violence was the starting point of Ṛṣabha's antarāya-karman, which made it impossible for him to receive proper alms for the same number of days.

The second motif involves Ṛṣabha's method of taking the sugar-cane juice Śreyāṃsa offered him. When he clasped his hands together to accept the offering, the two hands fought among themselves over which one was entitled to receive the alms. This is followed by an exposition in the form of a debate on the respective usages of the left and right hands. Only the latter is ritually pure in the Indian conception. Since they are not able to come to terms, both hands present themselves.

Taken together, such innovations give another style and tone to the legend. They produce a Ṛṣabha who is more an average human being than a distant character full of unattainable dignity.

Making a pilgrimage

Although the festival of Akṣaya-tṛtīyā has been celebrated for centuries, practices involving pilgrimage and mass fast-breaking ceremonies have become more prominent in recent years. Increasingly, large numbers of fasters travel to the temples of Shatrunjaya and Hastinapur to break their fast.

Theoretically the fast-breaking ceremony – pāraṇā – that is the key moment of the festival is not connected with any special sacred place. It can be celebrated in any local Jain temple, preferably dedicated to Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha, either in a sober manner or with great pomp if the tapasvīs belong to rich families.

However, the festival can also be the occasion of a pilgrimage undertaken to celebrate the fast-breaking ceremony in a famous place. Records show that some tapasvīs do not hesitate to travel long distances on foot, as if to push themselves to greater levels of asceticism.

Mount Shatrunjaya

Since the second part of the 20th century, the paramount place to complete the varṣītap fast has been considered Mount Shatrunjaya. The site is a famous pilgrimage destination for Jains because it is thought of as the best for gaining spiritual merit and destroying karmas. Its connections with the first Jina and his female attendant, Cakreśvarī, who is considered helpful to fasting women, make it a particularly significant site to break the fast.

In 1966 about 12,000 pilgrims gathered there to perform the fast-breaking ceremony, which involved about 1000 tapasvīs.

Hastinapur

A white-clad faster is ceremonially fed to break his fast. Fasting is a key part of Jain practice and is frequently undertaken during festivals or to fulfil a vow. Fasters gain great religious merit – puṇya – as do the relatives who help break their fasts

Breaking a fast
Image by Chandu Shah © Chandu Shah

Since the late 1970s Hastinapur has become another well-known place to travel to for Akṣaya-tṛtīyā. In 1987 about 5,000 pilgrims came for 269 tapasvīs while the next year 6,500 pilgrims performed the ceremony for 400 tapasvīs. One of the reasons is that traditionally it is the place where the original alms-giving event occurred.

In the 1970s, the Jain press started advertising the festival in Hastinapur and encouraged people to go there for the annual fast-breaking. However, Hastinapur had no temple dedicated to the first Jina, which was a disadvantage for devotees who wished to complete the fast in such a temple.

Hastinapur started to become a popular destination for Akṣaya-tṛtīyā in 1978, when a small temple at the back of the main Śvetāmbara temple, which is dedicated to Śāntinātha or Lord Śānti, was inaugurated as a temple to the First Lord. It contains detailed images of Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha and Śreyāṃsa, and thus depicts exactly the event the festival marks.

In 1985 to 1986 a temple especially dedicated to Ṛṣabha to commemorate his fast-breaking was built about two kilometres away from the city centre. It is called Pāraṇā-mandir or 'Fast-breaking Temple'. Since then the routine of the festival at Hastinapur has included a chariot procession – ratha-yātrā – from one temple to the other.

In Hastinapur, the festival takes place over a whole week, requiring a great deal of preparation. Attendance at the sermons and the daily yātrā processions increases as the days go on.

On the day of Akṣaya-tṛtīyā, preparations for the fast-breaking ceremony start. Large quantities of sugar-cane are bought from local landowners and brought to the temple complex. The sugar-cane is crushed in the press owned by the temple and the juice poured into big earthenware pots.

The tapasvīs and their relatives start taking their seats on the cushions prepared for them in the ceremonial hall. Many are elegantly and richly dressed. The tapasvīs are garlanded with flowers. Bags of presents can be seen, which members of their family will offer to the temple to honour their own tapasvī.

A relative fetches sugar-cane juice in the small earthenware pot supplied by the temple administration. The tapasvīs are fed symbolically with a small amount by all their relatives present. The relatives rush to feed their heroic tapasvī, all wanting to touch the small vessel of juice at the same time. The tapasvīs are exhausted.

The next day tapasvīs start taking solid food again, in a special meal served in the temple eating-hall.

Images

  • Lay women give alms to nuns White-clad nuns from the Aṅcala-gaccha sect receive alms from lay women. Śvetāmbara Mūrtipūjak monks and nuns beg alms twice a day. Finding suitable alms that are correctly offered in a complex ritual may take hours. The staff – daṇḍa – of one of the nuns can be seen on the right.. Image by Khetshi N. Shah © Khetshi N. Shah
  • Ṛṣabha receives alms The first Jina, Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha, receives sugar-cane juice from Prince Śreyāṃsa. When he accepts properly offered alms he can break his year-long fast. This temple panel stresses that lay people should offer alms correctly so that monks and nuns can accept them. The wire curling down over the panel is probably an electrical cable.. Image by Nalini Balbir © Nalini Balbir
  • Women singing hymns Women chanting hymns in the temple. Singing hymns of praise to the Jinas is one of the main elements of worship and is a crucial part of most religious ceremonies.. Image by Dey – Dey Alexander © CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  • Ṛṣabha becomes a monk This detail from a Śvetāmbara manuscript illustration shows the first Jina Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha plucking out his hair in the ritual of keśa-loca. This rite is part of the ceremony of renunciation – dīkṣā – in which a Jain begins life as a wandering monk or nun. This key moment in a Jina's life is watched by the king of the gods, Śakra.. Image by British Library © CC0 1.0 (Creative Commons Public Domain)
  • Preaching monks This painting from an Ādityavāra-kathā manuscript shows monks preaching to lay men. The monks are of the Digambara sect even though their white robes resemble those of Śvetāmbara monks. Each monk sits on a dais and holds a scripture in a scroll. The bookstands in front of each monk symbolise teaching, which is an important role of mendicants. The lay men raise their hands in gestures of respect.. Image by British Library © CC0 1.0 (Creative Commons Public Domain)
  • Breaking a fast A white-clad faster is ceremonially fed to break his fast. Fasting is a key part of Jain practice and is frequently undertaken during festivals or to fulfil a vow. Fasters gain great religious merit – puṇya – as do the relatives who help them break their fasts.. Image by Chandu Shah © Chandu Shah

Further Reading

‘The Micro-Genre of Dāna-Stories in Jaina Literature: Problems of Interrelation and Diffusion’
Nalini Balbir
Indologica Taurinensia
edited by Nalini Balbir and Colette Caillat
volume 11
International Association of Sanskrit Studies; 1983

Full details

‘Past and Present of a Jain Festival’
Nalini Balbir
Jainism in a Global Perspective
edited by Sagarmal Jain and Shriprakash Pandey
Pārśvanātha Vidyāpīṭha; Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India; 1998

Full details

Organizing Jainism in India and England
Marcus Banks
Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology series; volume 3
Clarendon Press; Oxford, UK; 1992

Full details

Śrī parvakathādi vividha viṣaya saṃgraha
Muni Bhuvanavijaya
Bhinmal, Rajasthan, India; 1980

Full details

Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India
John E. Cort
Oxford University Press USA; New York, USA; 2001

Full details

Jain Vrata-tap
Saryu Vinod Doshi
Rajkot, Gujarat, India; 2002

Full details

The Jains
Paul Dundas
Library of Religious Beliefs and Practices series; series editor John Hinnels and Ninian Smart; volume 14
Routledge Curzon Press; London, UK; 2002

Full details

'The Kalpa Sûtra of Bhadrabâhu'
Bhadrabāhu
translated and edited by Hermann Jacobi
Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes
Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft series; series editor Otto Loth; volume VII: 1
F. A. Brockhaus; Leipzig, Saxony, Germany; 1879

Full details

Art and Rituals: 2500 Years of Jainism
Eberhard Fischer
and Jyotindra Jain
Sterling Publishers; New Delhi, India; 1977

Full details

Jaina Iconography
Jyotindra Jain
and Eberhard Fischer
Iconography of Religions – Indian Religions series; volume 13: 12 and 13
Institute of Religious Iconography, State University of Groningen; E. J. Brill; Leiden, Netherlands; 1978

Full details

‘Festivals’
Jyoti Prasad Jain
Religion and Culture of the Jains
Jñānapīṭha Mūrtidevī granthamālā: English series; volume 6
Bhāratīya Jñānapītha; New Delhi, India; 1975

Full details

‘Jaina Festivals’
Padmanabh S. Jaini
Collected Papers on Jaina Studies
Motilal Banarsidass; New Delhi, India ; 2000

Full details

Triṣaṣṭiśalākapuruṣacaritra: Lives of the Sixty-three Illustrious Persons
Hemacandra
translated by Helen M. Johnson
Gaekwad's Oriental series; volume 1
Oriental Institute; Baroda, Gujarat, India; 1931

Full details

Śrī Jainavrata-kathāsaṃgraha: 40 vrata-kathāoṃ kā saṃgraha
Dīpacandajī Varṇī
Surat, Gujarat, India; 1975

Full details

Śrāddhavidhiprakaraṇa
Ratnaśekhara-sūri
Śreṣṭhi-Devacanda-Lālbhāī-Jaina Pustakoddhara Fund series; volume 106
Surat, Gujarat, India; 1960

Full details

Historical Dictionary of Jainism
Kristi L. Wiley
Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements series; series editor Jon Woronoff; volume 53
Scarecrow Press; Maryland, USA; 2004

Full details

'Kalpa Sûtra'
translated and edited by Hermann Jacobi
Jaina Sutras: Âkârâṅga Sûtra and Kalpa Sûtra
Sacred Books of the East series; series editor F. Max Müller; volume 22: 1
Clarendon Press; Oxford, England UK; 1884

Full details

Glossary

Alms

Food, money, medicine, clothing or anything else given to another person as a religious or charitable act. Asking for and giving alms is a significant part of Jainism, as it forms a daily point of contact between lay people and mendicants. Seeking, donating and receiving alms are highly ritualised ceremonies in the Jain tradition, and spiritual purity is essential for both giver and recipient. Giving alms is a way for lay Jains to gain merit – puṇya.

Apabhraṃśa

Apabhraṃśa is an umbrella term for the dialects that were the forerunners of modern Indian languages. Taken from the Sanskrit term apabhraṃśa, which literally means 'corrupt' or 'non-grammatical language', Apabhraṃśa was used to write a large number of Jain texts. Though Apabhraṃśa developed over the 6th to 13th centuries, literary works date back to the 8th century.

Ascetic

Someone who withdraws from ordinary life to meditate and practise physical hardships in order to advance spiritually. Jain ascetics or mendicants beg for food from devout lay followers and wander the land.

Also used as an adjective to describe the practice of rigorous, even extreme, physical hardships in the belief that it leads to a higher spiritual condition.

Asceticism

The practice of rigorous, even extreme, physical hardships in the belief that it leads to a higher spiritual condition. Asceticism involves self-denial – for example refusing tasty food or warm clothes – and sometimes self-mortification, such as wearing hair-shirts or whipping oneself.

Auspicious

Favourable or lucky. Auspicious objects bring good fortune and may predict good events or a bright future. 

Avasarpiṇī

The regressive or descending half-cycle in the Jain conception of time. With the second half, the progressive one, avasarpiṇī forms a complete cycle of time.

Caturvidha-saṅgha

The ‘fourfold society’ of Jain tradition, which is made up of ascetics and the laity, and of males and females.

Colophon

Found at the end of a Jain manuscript, a colophon is similar to the publication information at the beginning of modern books. It usually contains the title and sometimes details of the author, scribe and sponsor. The colophons of Jain manuscripts may also include the names of owners, readers and libraries where they have been stored. They frequently have decorative elements and very commonly contain a wish for good fortune for any readers. Written mainly by the scribes who copy texts, Jain colophons are often written in Sanskrit.

Commentary

An essay explaining a text. Commentaries on the scriptures are common in the Jain tradition and there are various types, including the:

  • bālāvabodha
  • bhāṣya
  • cūrṇi
  • niryukti
  • ṭīkā.

Common Era

The period of time starting with the year when Jesus Christ was traditionally believed to have been born. Using CE is a more secular way of dating events in a multinational, multi-religious world.

Dāna

Giving, specifically alms-giving to mendicants.

Devotee

An enthusiastic follower of a religion. Can also describe a keen enthusiast of an individual, concept or activity.

Donor

A donor gives freely. He or she may give alms to a mendicant or money to an institution. This donation may be for specific items or purposes, such as the creation of art. A donor, sponsor or patron may be named or pictured in the artwork.

Fast

Giving up or limiting food or specified foods for a period of time, usually as part of a religious practice. Fasting is a key part of Jainism, chiefly because it is believed to:

  • help destroy karmas that bind to the soul
  • gain merit – puṇya.

Festival

A public commemoration of a religious ritual. Often a celebration that involves holding a religious ceremony to mark an important event in a religion's history. 

Hindu

Follower of the majority faith in India and an adjective describing something belonging to Hinduism. Hindus have numerous gods and diverse beliefs and practices, though many believe in the soul, karma, the cycle of births and liberation. Roughly a billion Hindus comprise the third largest religion in the world.

Idol

An image of a deity or concept that is worshipped either as a god or as a representation of the deity.

Jain

Follower of the 24 Jinas or an adjective describing Jain teachings or practices. The term 'Jaina' is also used although 'Jain' is more common.

Jina

A 'victor' in Sanskrit, a Jina is an enlightened human being who has triumphed over karma and teaches the way to achieve liberation. A synonym for Tīrthaṃkara, which means 'ford-maker' or one who has founded a community after reaching omniscience through asceticism. The most famous 24 – Ṛṣabha to Mahāvīra – were born in the Bharata-kṣetra of the middle world, but more are found in other continents. There have been Jinas in the past and there will be some in the future.

Kalpa-vṛkṣa

Sanskrit for 'wishing-tree'. The inhabitants of the Lands of Enjoyment have wishing-trees to fulfil their every need. According to Digambaras, the emblem of the tenth Jina, Śītala, is the endless knot – śrīvatsa – or wishing-tree.

Kevala-jñāna

Omniscience, enlightenment or perfect knowledge – the highest of the five types of knowledge, where one knows everything wherever and whenever it is. It is extremely difficult to attain, equivalent to the 13th stage of spiritual purity in the guṇa-sthāna. Digambaras believe only men can achieve it whereas Śvetāmbaras believe that both men and women can become enlightened.

Laity

Believers in a religion who are ordinary worshippers, not clergy or members of religious orders. In Jainism, lay people are often called 'householders', indicating that they live in houses and have domestic responsibilities, unlike ascetics.

Mantra

A sacred sound, syllable, word or phrase that is believed to produce spiritual change if recited correctly. A mantra can be recited aloud or silently, and is often repeated. Mantras are closely associated with religions that originated in India, such as Hinduism and Buddhism as well as Jainism. The chief Jain mantra is the Namaskāra-mantra, which is recited daily, while another mantra very popular in Indian culture generally is Auṃ.

Monk

A man who has taken a public vow to withdraw from ordinary life to formally enter religious life and advance spiritually. Frequently, monks perform physical austerities or undergo physical hardships in order to progress spiritually.

Pāraṇā

The ritual in which a faster ends his or or her fast.

Pilgrimage

A journey to a place of religious significance. Some religions encourage pilgrimage as ways to advance spiritual progress and deepen the faith of those who make the trip – pilgrims.

Prākrit

A term for any of the dead vernacular languages of ancient and medieval India. It may be contrasted with classical Sanskrit, the language used by priests and the aristocracy. The Jains used a large variety of Prakrits, with the Jain canon written chiefly in Ardhamāgadhī Prākrit.

Pratikramaṇa

'Introspection’ in Sanskrit. The elaborate ritual of confession and repentance that involves reciting liturgical texts and performing set gestures at dawn and dusk. It is one of an ascetic's six daily duties – āvaśyaka. For many lay people, pratikramaṇa is the essence of Jainism.

Pūjā

Sanskrit for 'worship' or 'homage'. All Jains perform rites of honour to the 24 Jinas. Rites of worship take place daily, with more elaborate ceremonies performed on holy days. Mendicant and lay Jains perform different rituals. Some sects worship images – mūrti-pūjaka – and others do not, and different sects have various practices. Focused on images or not, worship can be:

  • external or material – dravya-pūjā – involving offerings of food, drink and precious substances
  • internal or mental – bhava-pūjā – including singing hymns of praise, reciting mantras and meditating.

Puṇya

Sanskrit for a 'right or good action'. Similar to a merit in Buddhism, it helps to reduce karma.

Renunciation

Giving up something. A lay person who becomes an ascetic renounces the life of a householder within society, instead choosing the physical hardships of being a monk or nun. The formal renunciation ceremony in Jainism is dīkṣā.

Rite

A sequence of actions that must be followed to perform a religious ceremony. The set of actions is largely symbolic, for example offering food to statues symbolises sacrificing to a deity. The ritual actions are often accompanied by set phrases.

Ṛṣabha

First Jina of the present age. His symbolic colour is gold and his emblem the ox or bull. There is little historical evidence of his existence. Jains believe that he established many social institutions, such as marriage and the caste system, and introduce crafts and agriculture to the people.

Sanskrit

A classical language of India, originally used by priests and nobility. Sanskrit has a rich literary and religious tradition. With only a few thousand native speakers nowadays, it is predominantly used in Hindu religious ceremonies and by scholars.

Sermon

A speech on a religious topic, usually delivered by a member of the clergy. Frequently a sermon has a moral lesson or is based on a sacred text.

Śvetāmbara

'White-clad’ in Sanskrit, the title of one of the two main divisions of Jainism, in which both male and female mendicants wear white robes. There are some differences of doctrine or belief between these two sects and to some extent their followers consider themselves as belonging to distinct branches. Divisions can be fierce in practical matters, for example, over the ownership of pilgrimage places, but all sects see themselves as Jains.

Temple

A building reserved for public worship or prayer, usually dedicated to one religion and run by members of that religion's clergy.

Vihāra

A Sanskrit term that describes the wandering lifestyle of Jain mendicants. Jain monks and nuns are expected to travel around, not stay in one place as householders do. They wander constantly on foot, never staying more than a few days in one place. They may walk around 30 kilometres a day in small groups. However, every year, during the monsoon, monks and nuns stay in one location to avoid travelling.

Yātrā

A pilgrimage, especially to a sacred place or tīrtha.

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